Work, Rework and Maintenance in Software

I thought it would be worth clarifying the terminology used to express the different types of work, rework and maintenance in software development.

Refactoring

Refactoring is the art of making your code clean and refining the design in small incremental steps towards the SOLID principles of software development. Refactoring should be performed many times a day to ensure code is clean.

Prototyping

In order to learn enough about a problem, a prototype is often built that will be thrown away. If the prototype is not thrown away, it is not a prototype. Prototyping should be used to gain knowledge and understanding of a problem. A prototype will generally have a substandard design because the problem is not well understood until the prototype is finished. That’s why you throw a prototype away and redesign what you have just done with increased knowledge. Don’t continue working on a prototype when there is no more learning taking place. Do not mix user interface prototyping with software design prototyping. Always keep the two separate.

Tracer Bullet

A tracer bullet is an implementation of part of a piece of software. A tracer bullet is used to learn enough about the larger piece of software, usually in order to inform estimates and tackle technical risks early. Tracer bullets are risk management for developers. A tracer bullet is only finished if the code is production ready, tested and has been kept clean by constantly refactoring the code during development otherwise it is a prototype and should be thrown away.

Redesign

Redesign is usually undertaken when existing code needs to be drastically remodeled. Redesign is an indication of one or more of the following problems:

  • the code is not clean and does not following the SOLID principles
  • there was inadequate knowledge during development
  • the project was rushed
  • technical risks were not properly flushed out

Redesign is caused by a lack of refactoring, prototyping and tracer bullets.

Conclusion

Every project should have a healthy mix of prototyping to inform design, tracer bullets to inform estimates and reduce risks and refactoring that should be done regularly throughout the day. Redesign implies that you’ve got an unhealthy mix or are ignoring important steps in the software development cycle.

Also, changes to requirements would potentially precipitate one or more of refactoring, prototyping, tracer bullets, or even redesign. The later suggesting quite a major change.

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